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How to Setup a Public WordPress site on a FreeNAS IOCage Jail

Abstract

Tutorial on how to setup public webserver in an iocage Jail on FreeNAS 11.2-U1.

Assumptions and Prerequisites

  • OS: FreeNAS 11.2-U1
  • FreeNAS Host: fn
  • FreeNAS Network Interface: vlan10 (NAS)
  • FreeNAS DMZ Network Interface: vlan4 (DMZ)
  • FreeNAS IP: 10.0.0.2 (NAS)
  • FreeNAS Subnet Mask: 24
  • Jail Container: iocage
  • iocage Version: 1.0 ALPHA 1
  • Jail Release: 11.2-RELEASE
  • Jail Name: www
  • Jail Network Interface: vnet0
  • Jail Network Config: DHCP
  • IP Version: IPv4
  • Bridge Network Interface: bridgedmz
  • DNS 1: 10.4.0.1
  • Domain: example.com
  • ZPool Volume: tank
  • NGINX Version: 1.14.2_6
  • Web Directory: /usr/local/www/wp
  • PHP Version: 7.2
  • Certificate File Name and Location: /usl/local/etc/ssl/test.crt
  • Certificate Key File Name and Location: /usr/local/etc/ssl/test.key

1. Setup VLAN4 Interface on your pfSense and Switch

Create a VLAN4 (DMZ) interface and enable DHCP Server for it. Subnet/Mask for the DMZ is 10.4.0.1/24.

2. Setup VLAN4 on your FreeNAS

Create a VLAN4 interface and activate it. Don’t configure any IP address on it.

3. Setup Bridge Interface Postinit Task Script

Create bridge interfaces setup script for iocage jails.

[email protected]:~ # ee /mnt/tank/scripts/bridges.sh
#!/bin/sh

# create bridges
/sbin/ifconfig bridge create name bridgenas
/sbin/ifconfig bridge create name bridgedmz

# add vlan interfaces to bridges
/sbin/ifconfig bridgenas addm vlan10 up
/sbin/ifconfig vlan10 up

/sbin/ifconfig bridgedmz addm vlan4 up
/sbin/ifconfig vlan4 up

Create a FreeNAS Postinit Task with /mnt/tank/scripts/bridges.sh script. The FreeNAS host will run this script everytime the host boots up. This will enable network connectivity for all the interfaces that are members of the bridge interfaces. Thus giving Internet connectivity to the iocage jails. Example: vlan4, vnet0.

4. Setup IOCage Jail

Create iocage Jail

You can either create a jail using the FreeNAS WebUI or the FreeNAS Shell.

When using the WebUI, you will need the following configuration details:

Basic Properties:
  • Name: www
  • Release: 11.2-RELEASE
  • DHCP Autoconfigure IPv4: on
  • VNET: on
  • Auto-Start: on
Jail Properties:
  • allow.set_hostname: on
  • allow.raw_sockets: on
Network Properties:
  • interfaces: vnet0:bridgedmz
  • resolver: search example.com;domain example.com;nameserver 10.4.0.1

Creating iocage jail via FreeNAS shell:

[email protected]:~ # iocage create -n "www" -r 11.2-RELEASE vnet="on" bpf="yes" dhcp="on" allow_raw_sockets="1" boot="on" interfaces="vnet0:bridgedmz" host_hostname="www.example.com" resolver="search example.com;domain example.com;nameserver 10.4.0.1"

Shell into iocage jail

[email protected]:~ # iocage console www

Prep Jail Configuration

Edit /etc/hosts file and change the following line by adding the host and domain to the loopback entry.

12: 127.0.0.1               localhost localhost.my.domain www www.example.com

Edit the /etc/pkg/FreeBSD.conf and change the following line to update packages from the ‘latest’ instead of ‘quarterly’ repository.

11: url: "pkg+http://pkg.FreeBSD.org/${ABI}/latest",

Update packages:

[email protected]:~ # pkg update -f

Mount Datasets

As usual, datasets can be mounted either via FreeNAS WebUI or the FreeNAS Shell. The WebUI method is simple and pretty straight forward, so I will skip it and show you the shell method here.

Mount the FreeNAS SSL Dataset /mnt/tank/ssl onto our iocage jail as read only. This Dataset is where we store all our Certificates, Keys, Ciphers.

[email protected]:~ # exit
[email protected]:~ # iocage fstab -a www /mnt/tank/ssl /mnt/ssl nullfs ro 0 0
[email protected]:~ # iocage console www

5. Install Web Server Packages

  • NGINX
  • PHP72
  • WordPress
[email protected]:~ # pkg install nginx php72 wordpress

Configure NGINX Web Server

Create and edit the following configuration files:
  • /usr/local/etc/nginx/php_handlers.conf: This config file directs where all the php scripts will be handled.
  • /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/redirect.conf: This config file that redirects all the HTTP requests to HTTPS.
  • /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl.conf: This config file has all the settings defined to enable SSL on the web sever.
  • /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/www.conf: This is the default wordpress server config file
  • /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf: This is the main config file for the nginx webserver.
Create the server hosts configuration directory /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d
[email protected]:~ # mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d
Create the /usr/local/etc/nginx/php_handlers.conf configuration file.
[email protected]:~ # ee /usr/local/etc/nginx/php_handlers.conf
# PHP Handlers

# WordPress
upstream php_wp {
        # This should match value of the "listen" directive in php-fpm pool for www
        server 127.0.0.1:9000;
}
Create and edit the /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/redirect.conf file
[email protected]:~ # ee /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/redirect.conf
server {
    listen 80 default_server;

    # Redirect all HTTP requests to HTTPS with a 301 Moved Permanently response.
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}
Create and edit the /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl.conf file
[email protected]:~ # ee /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl.conf
# Certs sent to the client in SERVER HELLO are concatenated in ssl_certificate

# Generated via ACME Certificates(Let's Encrypt Certbot via Cloudflare DNS) running on the pfSense edge firewall
ssl_certificate           /mnt/ssl/example.com/ecc.example.com.fullchain; # ECDSA Certificate with CA 
ssl_certificate_key       /mnt/ssl/example.com/ecc.example.com.key;       # ECDSA Key

# Cloudflare client certificate. Used only when no firewall rules set to prevent access from outside cloudflare dns proxy.
#ssl_client_certificate /mnt/ssl/cloudflare.crt;
#ssl_verify_client on;

# Generated via shell command on FreeNAS "openssl dhparam -out /mnt/tank/ssl/dh4096.pem 4096"
ssl_dhparam               /mnt/ssl/dh4096.pem; 
ssl_ecdh_curve            secp384r1;
ssl_session_cache         shared:SSL:1m;
ssl_session_timeout       5m;
ssl_session_tickets  off;

# mozilla intermediate ciphers (more relaxed ssl settings)
#ssl_ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA25
#ssl_protocols             TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;

# mozilla modern ciphers (more secure ssl settings)
ssl_ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305
ssl_protocols             TLSv1.3 TLSv1.2;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;

# OCSP Stapling ---
# fetch OCSP records from URL in ssl_certificate and cache them. Only used when certificates are generated with OCSP enabled
ssl_stapling on;
ssl_stapling_verify on;

## verify chain of trust of OCSP response using Root CA and Intermediate certs
ssl_trusted_certificate    /usr/local/etc/ssl/cert.pem;  # Prerequsite: package ca_root_nss has to be installed

# IP DNS resolver. Overrides the Nameserver setting in /etc/resolv.conf
#resolver 208.67.222.222;  # OpenDNS Nameserver
#resolver 208.67.220.220;  # OpenDNS Nameserver
Create and edit the /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/www.conf
[email protected]:~ # ee /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/www.conf
# www - public server
server {
   listen       443 ssl http2;
   server_name  www.example.com example.com;

   root    /usr/local/www/wordpress;
   index  index.php;

   # php max upload limit cannot be larger than this size
   client_max_body_size 13m;

   # SSL Configuration
   include /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl.conf;

   location / {
       try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;
   }

   location ~ \.php$ {
        include        fastcgi_params;
        fastcgi_index  index.php;
        fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME $request_filename;
        fastcgi_pass   php_wp;  # php handler for www
        fastcgi_buffers 16 16k;
        fastcgi_buffer_size 32k;
   }

   location ~* \.(js|css|png|jpg|jpeg|gif|ico)$ {
        expires max;
        access_log off;
        log_not_found off;
   }

} # End of www server block
Edit the file /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
[email protected]:~ # ee /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
# Load Modules
load_module /usr/local/libexec/nginx/ngx_mail_module.so;
load_module /usr/local/libexec/nginx/ngx_stream_module.so;

user www;
worker_processes auto;

events {
  worker_connections 1024;
}

http {

  # Basic settings
  # ----------

  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush on;
  keepalive_timeout 65;
  #server_tokens off;

  # Common limits
  # ----------

  include mime.types;
  default_type application/octet-stream;

  # Logs format
  # ----------

  log_format main '$remote_addr - $host [$time_local] "$request" '
                  '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                  '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"'
                  'rt=$request_time ut=$upstream_response_time '
                  'cs=$upstream_cache_status';

  log_format cache '$remote_addr - $host [$time_local] "$request" $status '
                   '$body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                   'rt=$request_time ut=$upstream_response_time '
                   'cs=$upstream_cache_status';

  access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log main;
  error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log warn;

  # GZip config
  # ----------

  gzip on;

  # Cache config
  # ----------

  # PHP Handlers
  # ----------
  include /usr/local/etc/nginx/php_handlers.conf;


  # Virtual host config
  # ----------
  # Only virtual host with the *.conf will be included.
  include /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf; 

}  # End of http block

Configure PHP-FPM

Create and edit the following files:
  • /usr/local/etc/php.ini
  • /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.conf
  • /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
Create /usr/local/etc/php.ini config file from production template
[email protected]:~ # cp /usr/local/etc/php.ini-production /usr/local/etc/php.ini
Edit /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.conf config file
[email protected]:~ # ee /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.conf
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; FPM Configuration ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; All relative paths in this configuration file are relative to PHP's install
; prefix (/usr/local). This prefix can be dynamically changed by using the
; '-p' argument from the command line.

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Global Options ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

[global]
; Pid file
; Note: the default prefix is /var
; Default Value: none
pid = run/php-fpm.pid

; Error log file
; If it's set to "syslog", log is sent to syslogd instead of being written
; into a local file.
; Note: the default prefix is /var
; Default Value: log/php-fpm.log
;error_log = log/php-fpm.log

; syslog_facility is used to specify what type of program is logging the
; message. This lets syslogd specify that messages from different facilities
; will be handled differently.
; See syslog(3) for possible values (ex daemon equiv LOG_DAEMON)
; Default Value: daemon
;syslog.facility = daemon

; syslog_ident is prepended to every message. If you have multiple FPM
; instances running on the same server, you can change the default value
; which must suit common needs.
; Default Value: php-fpm
;syslog.ident = php-fpm

; Log level
; Possible Values: alert, error, warning, notice, debug
; Default Value: notice
;log_level = notice

; If this number of child processes exit with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS within the time
; interval set by emergency_restart_interval then FPM will restart. A value
; of '0' means 'Off'.
; Default Value: 0
;emergency_restart_threshold = 0

; Interval of time used by emergency_restart_interval to determine when
; a graceful restart will be initiated.  This can be useful to work around
; accidental corruptions in an accelerator's shared memory.
; Available Units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
;emergency_restart_interval = 0

; Time limit for child processes to wait for a reaction on signals from master.
; Available units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
;process_control_timeout = 0

; The maximum number of processes FPM will fork. This has been designed to control
; the global number of processes when using dynamic PM within a lot of pools.
; Use it with caution.
; Note: A value of 0 indicates no limit
; Default Value: 0
; process.max = 128

; Specify the nice(2) priority to apply to the master process (only if set)
; The value can vary from -19 (highest priority) to 20 (lowest priority)
; Note: - It will only work if the FPM master process is launched as root
;       - The pool process will inherit the master process priority
;         unless specified otherwise
; Default Value: no set
; process.priority = -19

; Send FPM to background. Set to 'no' to keep FPM in foreground for debugging.
; Default Value: yes
;daemonize = yes

; Set open file descriptor rlimit for the master process.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024

; Set max core size rlimit for the master process.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0

; Specify the event mechanism FPM will use. The following is available:
; - select     (any POSIX os)
; - poll       (any POSIX os)
; - epoll      (linux >= 2.5.44)
; - kqueue     (FreeBSD >= 4.1, OpenBSD >= 2.9, NetBSD >= 2.0)
; - /dev/poll  (Solaris >= 7)
; - port       (Solaris >= 10)
; Default Value: not set (auto detection)
events.mechanism = kqueue

; When FPM is built with systemd integration, specify the interval,
; in seconds, between health report notification to systemd.
; Set to 0 to disable.
; Available Units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default value: 10
;systemd_interval = 10

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Pool Definitions ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; Multiple pools of child processes may be started with different listening
; ports and different management options.  The name of the pool will be
; used in logs and stats. There is no limitation on the number of pools which
; FPM can handle. Your system will tell you anyway :)

; Include one or more files. If glob(3) exists, it is used to include a bunch of
; files from a glob(3) pattern. This directive can be used everywhere in the
; file.
; Relative path can also be used. They will be prefixed by:
;  - the global prefix if it's been set (-p argument)
;  - /usr/local otherwise
include=/usr/local/etc/php-fpm.d/*.conf
Edit file /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
[email protected]:~ # ee /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
; Start a new pool named 'www'.
; the variable $pool can be used in any directive and will be replaced by the
; pool name ('www' here)
[www]

; Per pool prefix
; It only applies on the following directives:
; - 'access.log'
; - 'slowlog'
; - 'listen' (unixsocket)
; - 'chroot'
; - 'chdir'
; - 'php_values'
; - 'php_admin_values'
; When not set, the global prefix (or /usr/local) applies instead.
; Note: This directive can also be relative to the global prefix.
; Default Value: none
;prefix = /path/to/pools/$pool

; Unix user/group of processes
; Note: The user is mandatory. If the group is not set, the default user's group
;       will be used.
user = www
group = www

; The address on which to accept FastCGI requests.
; Valid syntaxes are:
;   'ip.add.re.ss:port'    - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific IPv4 address on
;                            a specific port;
;   '[ip:6:addr:ess]:port' - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific IPv6 address on
;                            a specific port;
;   'port'                 - to listen on a TCP socket to all addresses
;                            (IPv6 and IPv4-mapped) on a specific port;
;   '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
listen = 127.0.0.1:9000

; Set listen(2) backlog.
; Default Value: 511 (-1 on FreeBSD and OpenBSD)
listen.backlog = -1

; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write
; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server. Many
; BSD-derived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user
;                 mode is set to 0660
;listen.owner = www
;listen.group = www
;listen.mode = 0660
; When POSIX Access Control Lists are supported you can set them using
; these options, value is a comma separated list of user/group names.
; When set, listen.owner and listen.group are ignored
;listen.acl_users =
;listen.acl_groups =

; List of addresses (IPv4/IPv6) of FastCGI clients which are allowed to connect.
; Equivalent to the FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment variable in the original
; PHP FCGI (5.2.2+). Makes sense only with a tcp listening socket. Each address
; must be separated by a comma. If this value is left blank, connections will be
; accepted from any ip address.
; Default Value: any
listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1

; Specify the nice(2) priority to apply to the pool processes (only if set)
; The value can vary from -19 (highest priority) to 20 (lower priority)
; Note: - It will only work if the FPM master process is launched as root
;       - The pool processes will inherit the master process priority
;         unless it specified otherwise
; Default Value: no set
; process.priority = -19

; Set the process dumpable flag (PR_SET_DUMPABLE prctl) even if the process user
; or group is differrent than the master process user. It allows to create process
; core dump and ptrace the process for the pool user.
; Default Value: no
; process.dumpable = yes

; Choose how the process manager will control the number of child processes.
; Possible Values:
;   static  - a fixed number (pm.max_children) of child processes;
;   dynamic - the number of child processes are set dynamically based on the
;             following directives. With this process management, there will be
;             always at least 1 children.
;             pm.max_children      - the maximum number of children that can
;                                    be alive at the same time.
;             pm.start_servers     - the number of children created on startup.
;             pm.min_spare_servers - the minimum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is less than this
;                                    number then some children will be created.
;             pm.max_spare_servers - the maximum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is greater than this
;                                    number then some children will be killed.
;  ondemand - no children are created at startup. Children will be forked when
;             new requests will connect. The following parameter are used:
;             pm.max_children           - the maximum number of children that
;                                         can be alive at the same time.
;             pm.process_idle_timeout   - The number of seconds after which
;                                         an idle process will be killed.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm = dynamic

; The number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'static' and the
; maximum number of child processes when pm is set to 'dynamic' or 'ondemand'.
; This value sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be
; served. Equivalent to the ApacheMaxClients directive with mpm_prefork.
; Equivalent to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment variable in the original PHP
; CGI. The below defaults are based on a server without much resources. Don't
; forget to tweak pm.* to fit your needs.
; Note: Used when pm is set to 'static', 'dynamic' or 'ondemand'
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm.max_children = 5

; The number of child processes created on startup.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Default Value: min_spare_servers + (max_spare_servers - min_spare_servers) / 2
pm.start_servers = 2

; The desired minimum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.min_spare_servers = 1

; The desired maximum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.max_spare_servers = 3

; The number of seconds after which an idle process will be killed.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'ondemand'
; Default Value: 10s
;pm.process_idle_timeout = 10s;

; The number of requests each child process should execute before respawning.
; This can be useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries. For
; endless request processing specify '0'. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS.
; Default Value: 0
;pm.max_requests = 500

; The URI to view the FPM status page. If this value is not set, no URI will be
; recognized as a status page. It shows the following informations:
;   pool                 - the name of the pool;
;   process manager      - static, dynamic or ondemand;
;   start time           - the date and time FPM has started;
;   start since          - number of seconds since FPM has started;
;   accepted conn        - the number of request accepted by the pool;
;   listen queue         - the number of request in the queue of pending
;                          connections (see backlog in listen(2));
;   max listen queue     - the maximum number of requests in the queue
;                          of pending connections since FPM has started;
;   listen queue len     - the size of the socket queue of pending connections;
;   idle processes       - the number of idle processes;
;   active processes     - the number of active processes;
;   total processes      - the number of idle + active processes;
;   max active processes - the maximum number of active processes since FPM
;                          has started;
;   max children reached - number of times, the process limit has been reached,
;                          when pm tries to start more children (works only for
;                          pm 'dynamic' and 'ondemand');
; Value are updated in real time.
; Example output:
;   pool:                 www
;   process manager:      static
;   start time:           01/Jul/2011:17:53:49 +0200
;   start since:          62636
;   accepted conn:        190460
;   listen queue:         0
;   max listen queue:     1
;   listen queue len:     42
;   idle processes:       4
;   active processes:     11
;   total processes:      15
;   max active processes: 12
;   max children reached: 0
;
; By default the status page output is formatted as text/plain. Passing either
; 'html', 'xml' or 'json' in the query string will return the corresponding
; output syntax. Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?json
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?html
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?xml
;
; By default the status page only outputs short status. Passing 'full' in the
; query string will also return status for each pool process.
; Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?full
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?json&full
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?html&full
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?xml&full
; The Full status returns for each process:
;   pid                  - the PID of the process;
;   state                - the state of the process (Idle, Running, ...);
;   start time           - the date and time the process has started;
;   start since          - the number of seconds since the process has started;
;   requests             - the number of requests the process has served;
;   request duration     - the duration in ┬Ás of the requests;
;   request method       - the request method (GET, POST, ...);
;   request URI          - the request URI with the query string;
;   content length       - the content length of the request (only with POST);
;   user                 - the user (PHP_AUTH_USER) (or '-' if not set);
;   script               - the main script called (or '-' if not set);
;   last request cpu     - the %cpu the last request consumed
;                          it's always 0 if the process is not in Idle state
;                          because CPU calculation is done when the request
;                          processing has terminated;
;   last request memory  - the max amount of memory the last request consumed
;                          it's always 0 if the process is not in Idle state
;                          because memory calculation is done when the request
;                          processing has terminated;
; If the process is in Idle state, then informations are related to the
; last request the process has served. Otherwise informations are related to
; the current request being served.
; Example output:
;   ************************
;   pid:                  31330
;   state:                Running
;   start time:           01/Jul/2011:17:53:49 +0200
;   start since:          63087
;   requests:             12808
;   request duration:     1250261
;   request method:       GET
;   request URI:          /test_mem.php?N=10000
;   content length:       0
;   user:                 -
;   script:               /home/fat/web/docs/php/test_mem.php
;   last request cpu:     0.00
;   last request memory:  0
;
; Note: There is a real-time FPM status monitoring sample web page available
;       It's available in: /usr/local/share/php/fpm/status.html
;
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;pm.status_path = /status

; The ping URI to call the monitoring page of FPM. If this value is not set, no
; URI will be recognized as a ping page. This could be used to test from outside
; that FPM is alive and responding, or to
; - create a graph of FPM availability (rrd or such);
; - remove a server from a group if it is not responding (load balancing);
; - trigger alerts for the operating team (24/7).
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;ping.path = /ping

; This directive may be used to customize the response of a ping request. The
; response is formatted as text/plain with a 200 response code.
; Default Value: pong
;ping.response = pong

; The access log file
; Default: not set
;access.log = log/$pool.access.log

; The access log format.
; The following syntax is allowed
;  %%: the '%' character
;  %C: %CPU used by the request
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{user}C for user CPU only
;      - %{system}C for system CPU only
;      - %{total}C  for user + system CPU (default)
;  %d: time taken to serve the request
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{seconds}d (default)
;      - %{miliseconds}d
;      - %{mili}d
;      - %{microseconds}d
;      - %{micro}d
;  %e: an environment variable (same as $_ENV or $_SERVER)
;      it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the env
;      variable. Some exemples:
;      - server specifics like: %{REQUEST_METHOD}e or %{SERVER_PROTOCOL}e
;      - HTTP headers like: %{HTTP_HOST}e or %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}e
;  %f: script filename
;  %l: content-length of the request (for POST request only)
;  %m: request method
;  %M: peak of memory allocated by PHP
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{bytes}M (default)
;      - %{kilobytes}M
;      - %{kilo}M
;      - %{megabytes}M
;      - %{mega}M
;  %n: pool name
;  %o: output header
;      it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the header:
;      - %{Content-Type}o
;      - %{X-Powered-By}o
;      - %{Transfert-Encoding}o
;      - ....
;  %p: PID of the child that serviced the request
;  %P: PID of the parent of the child that serviced the request
;  %q: the query string
;  %Q: the '?' character if query string exists
;  %r: the request URI (without the query string, see %q and %Q)
;  %R: remote IP address
;  %s: status (response code)
;  %t: server time the request was received
;      it can accept a strftime(3) format:
;      %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default)
;      The strftime(3) format must be encapsuled in a %{<strftime_format>}t tag
;      e.g. for a ISO8601 formatted timestring, use: %{%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%z}t
;  %T: time the log has been written (the request has finished)
;      it can accept a strftime(3) format:
;      %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default)
;      The strftime(3) format must be encapsuled in a %{<strftime_format>}t tag
;      e.g. for a ISO8601 formatted timestring, use: %{%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%z}t
;  %u: remote user
;
; Default: "%R - %u %t \"%m %r\" %s"
;access.format = "%R - %u %t \"%m %r%Q%q\" %s %f %{mili}d %{kilo}M %C%%"

; The log file for slow requests
; Default Value: not set
; Note: slowlog is mandatory if request_slowlog_timeout is set
;slowlog = log/$pool.log.slow

; The timeout for serving a single request after which a PHP backtrace will be
; dumped to the 'slowlog' file. A value of '0s' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_slowlog_timeout = 0

; Depth of slow log stack trace.
; Default Value: 20
;request_slowlog_trace_depth = 20

; The timeout for serving a single request after which the worker process will
; be killed. This option should be used when the 'max_execution_time' ini option
; does not stop script execution for some reason. A value of '0' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_terminate_timeout = 0

; Set open file descriptor rlimit.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024

; Set max core size rlimit.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0

; Chroot to this directory at the start. This value must be defined as an
; absolute path. When this value is not set, chroot is not used.
; Note: you can prefix with '$prefix' to chroot to the pool prefix or one
; of its subdirectories. If the pool prefix is not set, the global prefix
; will be used instead.
; Note: chrooting is a great security feature and should be used whenever
;       possible. However, all PHP paths will be relative to the chroot
;       (error_log, sessions.save_path, ...).
; Default Value: not set
;chroot =

; Chdir to this directory at the start.
; Note: relative path can be used.
; Default Value: current directory or / when chroot
;chdir = /var/www

; Redirect worker stdout and stderr into main error log. If not set, stdout and
; stderr will be redirected to /dev/null according to FastCGI specs.
; Note: on highloaded environement, this can cause some delay in the page
; process time (several ms).
; Default Value: no
;catch_workers_output = yes

; Clear environment in FPM workers
; Prevents arbitrary environment variables from reaching FPM worker processes
; by clearing the environment in workers before env vars specified in this
; pool configuration are added.
; Setting to "no" will make all environment variables available to PHP code
; via getenv(), $_ENV and $_SERVER.
; Default Value: yes
;clear_env = no

; Limits the extensions of the main script FPM will allow to parse. This can
; prevent configuration mistakes on the web server side. You should only limit
; FPM to .php extensions to prevent malicious users to use other extensions to
; execute php code.
; Note: set an empty value to allow all extensions.
; Default Value: .php
;security.limit_extensions = .php .php3 .php4 .php5 .php7

; Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH. All $VARIABLEs are taken from
; the current environment.
; Default Value: clean env
;env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
;env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
;env[TMP] = /tmp
;env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
;env[TEMP] = /tmp
env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
env[TMP] = /tmp
env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
env[TEMP] = /tmp

; Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers. These settings
; overwrite the values previously defined in the php.ini. The directives are the
; same as the PHP SAPI:
;   php_value/php_flag             - you can set classic ini defines which can
;                                    be overwritten from PHP call 'ini_set'.
;   php_admin_value/php_admin_flag - these directives won't be overwritten by
;                                     PHP call 'ini_set'
; For php_*flag, valid values are on, off, 1, 0, true, false, yes or no.

; Defining 'extension' will load the corresponding shared extension from
; extension_dir. Defining 'disable_functions' or 'disable_classes' will not
; overwrite previously defined php.ini values, but will append the new value
; instead.

; Note: path INI options can be relative and will be expanded with the prefix
; (pool, global or /usr/local)

; Default Value: nothing is defined by default except the values in php.ini and
;                specified at startup with the -d argument
;php_admin_value[sendmail_path] = /usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i -f [email protected]
;php_flag[display_errors] = off
;php_admin_value[error_log] = /var/log/fpm-php.www.log
;php_admin_flag[log_errors] = on
;php_admin_value[memory_limit] = 32M

php_admin_value[memory_limit] = 128M
php_admin_value[cgi.fix_pathinfo] = 0
php_admin_value[post_max_size] = 13M
php_admin_value[upload_max_filesize] = 13M
php_admin_value[date.timezone] = "Australia/Melbourne"

6. WordPress Setup

Coming Soon

Setup Domain on CloudFlare (Free-Tier)

We are going to use Cloudflare’s DNS Proxy.

1. Register Cloudflare’s Nameservers with your Domain Provider

2. Setup Cloudflare DNS Proxy

  • Create an A record <Your Public IP> “example.com” and enable proxy (Yellow Cloud).
  • Create a CNAME record ‘www’ for “example.com” and enable proxy (Yellow Cloud).
  • Create a CAA record ‘0 issue “letsencrypt.org’ for “example.com”, Tag: allow all wildcards.